That’s over 2, years! Why did the clan disappear? But many of the points found at the site were of the domestic variety – atlatl hunting darts. These points are notched to stay on the shaft when pulled from prey for reuse. But a peaceful society usually sags in weapons technology. Did a stone-age tribe with higher technology invade the clan?

Top 10 unexplained ancient artifacts

Willamette Meteorite , the sixth largest in the world, is an iron-nickel meteorite. Iron meteorites consist overwhelmingly of nickel-iron alloys. The metal taken from these meteorites is known as meteoritic iron and was one of the earliest sources of usable iron available to humans. Those artifacts include, for example, a bead from the 5th millennium BC found in Iran [2] and spear tips and ornaments from Ancient Egypt and Sumer around BC. Meteoritic iron is very rare, and the metal was probably very expensive, perhaps more expensive than gold.

Every once in a while, archaeologists (and sometimes amateur archaeologists) make remarkable and bizarre discoveries. Sometimes, the finding is so surprising that they are unable to explain what.

A Collection of Vinland Artifacts over the Centuries. Vinland Scholars may recall that New England has always been a favored locale of Vinland. This page will identify eight artifacts that “Antiquitates Americanae” see Rafn’s map detail: I will identify the artifact and comment on it. All, however, must be understood to have no scientific provenance because they were not discovered under controlled conditions — they were discovered by accident. This lack of provenance does not mean they must be forgeries or are of no interest, it simply means that they are not “proven” to scientific standards.

I make no claim over and above my commentary that all must be valid and simply display the result.

Ferrous metallurgy

Rajaram Until quite recently, the famous Harappan civilization of the Indus valley has been an enigma. Many questions still remain about the identity of the people who created this great ancient civilization. Stretching over a million and a half square kilometers, from the borders of Iran to east UP and with some sites as far south as the Godavari valley, it was larger than ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia combined.

The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Lamoureux, March/April Introduction. Today’s archaeologist has a wide variety of natural, electro-magnetic, chemical, and radio-metric dating methodologies available to her that can be used to accurately date objects that are just a few hundred years old as well as objects that are a few million years old with high.

Proto Tools from Plomb Tool Co. The catalog “F” from the Ducommun Corporation lists Plomb tools including open-end wrenches, chisels, punches, and bearing scrapers. The illustrations show the early “Plomb Tool Mfg. The catalog “G” from the Ducommun Corporation lists only a few Plomb tools, consisting of chisels, oil groovers, and a cotter pin puller.

The illustration for a Plomb No. Advertisements Plomb placed advertisements in a number of trade magazines and other periodicals, and these ads provide an interesting snapshot of the tools available at various times. The text notes the use of tungsten steel, and the ad also offers a Plomb hand-forged keyring screwdriver for just 12 cents in stamps. Another interesting detail to note is that the Plomb name at the top is written in the PLVMB form with an inverted triangle. The ad notes the use of molybdenum steel in the sockets, and shows a number of the drive tools available at the time.

Early Tools Although Plomb began operations in , the surviving record of their production doesn’t extend much earlier than the s. The company’s earlier production included striking tools such as chisels, which tend to be consumed during use and eventually discarded. In addition, it’s not known whether the earliest tools were even marked, making later identification nearly impossible.

11 Extraordinary Out

A Mayan Jade Hunchback The Big Sandy Point In the study of the typology of projectile points used by prehistoric Americans during the Paleo and Archaic Periods in the Carolinas and Virginia, there seems to be only four types generalized by the point bases. The lanceolate type is straight sided without any notches or stems and is primarily known for the Clovis and Dalton styles of the Paleo Period, circa 10, to 8, BC.

After the Paleo Period ended, with the demise of the large megafauna such as Mammouth, Mastodon and Giant Bison, the point types changed to notched bases and later to stemmed points. The two notched basal types included the corner notched Palmer and Kirk and the side notched styles Hardaway and Big Sandy. These all began during the earliest times in the Archaic Period with a beginning date of at least 8, BC and ending around 6, BC.

After that the stemmed type points mostly dominated for the next five or six thousand years.

HOME: Bottle Dating. INTRODUCTION. This page and associated sub-pages allows a user to run an American produced utilitarian bottle or a significantly sized bottle fragment through a series of questions based primarily on diagnostic physical, manufacturing related characteristics or features to determine the approximate manufacturing age range of the item.

At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.

Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water. The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is uneven. The main mechanism that brings deep water to the surface is upwelling, which is more common in regions closer to the equator.

Upwelling is also influenced by factors such as the topography of the local ocean bottom and coastlines, the climate, and wind patterns. Overall, the mixing of deep and surface waters takes far longer than the mixing of atmospheric CO 2 with the surface waters, and as a result water from some deep ocean areas has an apparent radiocarbon age of several thousand years.

Upwelling mixes this “old” water with the surface water, giving the surface water an apparent age of about several hundred years after correcting for fractionation. This is probably because the greater surface area of ocean in the southern hemisphere means that there is more carbon exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere than in the north. Since the surface ocean is depleted in 14 C because of the marine effect, 14 C is removed from the southern atmosphere more quickly than in the north.

For example, rivers that pass over limestone , which is mostly composed of calcium carbonate , will acquire carbonate ions. Similarly, groundwater can contain carbon derived from the rocks through which it has passed. Dormant volcanoes can also emit aged carbon.

Rare Collection of Iron Age Metal Artifacts Discovered in England

A chastity belt with serrated metal teeth. Chastity belts — iron locking contraptions placed around the genitalia of women — were supposedly first used to prevent knights’ wives and partners from falling to temptation while knights were away for years at a time. However, recent research indicates this is most likely a modern myth embraced by 18th and 19th century historians eager to illustrate the backwardness of medieval civilizations relative to their own enlightenment.

The first known sketch of a metal chastity belt comes from a German treatise written in , but it is believed to be a joke, rather than a depiction of any actual devices in common use. Other references to chastity belts from the 16th and 17th centuries can be interpreted as ironic, satirical or metaphorical within their historical context.

Evolution of Blast Furnace Iron Making. The origin of the first smelting of iron is concealed in the unrecorded history of human civilization. The first evidence of iron implements being used in ancient times actually comes from Egypt where an iron tool was .

With this setup, a conservator is able to precisely regulate the flow of the current to the artifact and maintain a predetermined electrode potential conducive to metal reduction on the surface of the specimen. This setup is used for artifacts that are especially significant and need to be conserved as carefully as possible. The Type 2 electrolytic setup Figure 10B. When this arrangement is used, it is important to make sure that the distance between the different anodes is greater than the distances between the artifact and its anode in order to prevent any cross-over current.

This point is not graphically depicted in Figure 10B. With this setup, the current flow to each artifact can be carefully controlled, and the correct electrode potential can be maintained. Since the chlorides present in the electrolyte come from all the artifacts in the vat, it is not possible to determine exactly when a specific artifact is chloride-free. The chloride test does, however, tell the conservator when to change a chloride-contaminated electrolyte and when all of the artifacts are chloride-free.

If an artifact requires close supervision i. The most critical variable for precision control is the ability to maintain an even current density on the cathode surface by positioning the anode equidistant from all parts of the artifact while maintaining a steady reduction electrode potential. Monitoring the chlorides during electrolysis is of lesser importance. The most commonly used electrolytic setup involves connecting multiple artifacts to a single power supply.

Regardless of how it is configured, Type 3 electrolytic setups Figure 10B. In one configuration Figure 10B.

Iron Ore Heritage Trail in Michigan

The blade is held in position by a circular flange to the top of the blade to keep in position when opened. The blade is secured by brass washers and iron pin. Nice early style with a honey brown patina to the handle Bale seals served two basic purposes in the colonial period with some variation in form and function.

Their primary function was to provide proof that cloth or other goods had met the standard set by the guild which controlled the materials in the bale. Most often, this was cloth since cloth was one of the most valuable and highly regulated and controlled materials in the 17th Century.

The Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama is a southeastern regional interpretive center on 19th century iron making featuring both belt driven machines of the s and tools and products of the times.

Over the last 40 years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on early industrial organizations, a field of study that has come to be known as Archaeotechnology. Archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of ancient technologies in a cultural context and have drawn on the laboratory analyses developed by materials scientists as one portion of their interpretive program.

Corroded iron from the Java Sea Wreck. Chinese Warring States arrowhead dating to about — B. A wrought-iron Roman cleaver. Large spear from Burkino Faso, Africa. Paperweight made by reworking iron from the Himeji Castle in Japan. In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based materials. Recent advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable source of material for radiocarbon dating.

Additionally, a summary is presented of all 63 previously published results for iron-based materials and 29 new results that have not been published previously.

300 Million Year Old Bell Found In Coal?